Glossary

A

Amino Acid

A building block of proteins.


Anthocyanins

Phytochemicals from the class of flavonoids (pigments) which help to protect the plant from UV damage. Anthocyanins have powerful anti-oxidant activities.


Antibody

Any of various blood proteins produced in response to and then counteracting antigens (a foreign substance, such as a toxin).


Antioxidant

A substance that removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents. For example, vitamins C and E are antioxidants. Also called Free Radical Scavengers.


Arthritis

A Inflammation of a joint causing pain, swelling, and stiffness.


B

Bioactive Milk Peptide

A whey peptide that exerts an active physiological function.


Bioactivity

A material that elicits a specific biological response at the interface of the material which results in the formation of a bond between tissues and the material.


Body Mass Index

A guideline computed through a combination of weight and height.


Bonded Cysteine

A building block for glutathione, which is a naturally-occurring protein in our bodies.


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C

CMP

Cytokine Modulating Proteins (CMP). Specific molecules of CMP assist the body manage normal cellular growth; work with the body to repair damaged cells.


Calcium

A chemical element essential for many body functions, such as muscle contraction, building strong bones and teeth, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heartbeat, and fluid balance within cells.


Calcium (Citrate)

Calcium citrate is a source of bioavailability calcium commonly used as a food additive. This calcium salt of citric acid is also used as a water softener.


Chromium Picolinate

A biologically active form of chromium, used as a nutritional supplement. Picolinate, a by-product of the amino acid tryptophan, is paired with chromium in supplements because it is said to help the body absorb chromium more efficiently.


Citric Acid

Weak organic acid found in citrus fruits that play important role as an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. Once protons are released, citrate ions make excellent buffers for controlling the pH of acidic solutions.


COX enzyme

COX enzymes speed up your body’s production of hormone-like substances called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins cause the feeling of pain by irritating your nerve endings. They are also part of the system that helps your body control temperature.


Creatine

Is a nitrogenous organic acid that helps supply energy to the muscle cells.


Cyanidin

Aglycon (non-sugar compound remaining after replacement of a glycosyl group by a hydrogen atom) anthocyanins with powerful antioxidant activities.


Cysteine

An amino acid, or protein building block, that is part of glutathione.


Cystine

A pair of bonded cysteine. Two cysteine molecules bonded together offer each other protection against digestion.


Cytokine Modulating Proteins (CMP)

Specific molecules of CMP assist the body manage normal cellular growth; work with the body to repair damaged cells.


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D

Daily Values

Daily values are the dietary reference values that are used on all current US Nutrition Facts labels. These values were determined to best represent the minimum needs of the general population. Most DV's are derived from Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) and other recommendations made by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (IOM).


Damiana

An herbal plant found in Baja California, used to enhance energy levels and stimulate muscle contractions and blood circulation. Used as an aphrodisiac.


Dental Plaque

A film of mucus and bacteria which collects around and between teeth. It is the major cause of tooth decay and gum disease (gingivitis).


Detoxifier

An agent that helps facilitate the removal of toxins from the body.


Dietary Supplement

A product taken by mouth that contains a “dietary ingredient” intended to supplement the diet. The “dietary ingredients” in these products may include: vitamins, minerals, herbs or other botanicals, amino acids, and substances such as enzymes, organ tissues, glandulars, and metabolites.


E

Enzyme

A protein produced by living cells and functioning as a catalyst in a specific biochemical reaction.


F

Folic Acid

A crystalline vitamin C19H19N7O6 of the B complex that is required for normal production of red blood cells.


Free Radical

An uncharged atom or group of atoms with one or more unpaired electrons. These by-products of a cell’s normal function can’t be avoided, but exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun or other sources promotes their emergence.


Free Radical Scavengers

Agents that can inhibit the toxic effects of beta-amyloid in tissue culture. Also called Antioxidants.


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G

Ginkgo Biloba

An extract of the leaves of the ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) that is used as a dietary supplement and is held to enhance mental functioning by increasing blood circulation to the brain. Also called Gingko.


Ginseng

Any of several medicinal plants of the genus Panax, found in East Asia and North America.


Glutamic Acid

An amino acid, or protein building block, that is part of glutathione.


Glutathione

A small protein produced naturally in every cell of our body. It is made up of three protein building blocks, called amino acids. These are glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine. The cysteine amino acid contains a sulfur group responsible for the chemical properties of the whole glutathione protein.


Glutathione Precursor

A building block necessary for the production of glutathione.


Glycine

An amino acid, or protein building block, that is part of glutathione.


Green Tea

An herb that contains catechins, a class of bioflavonoids, with antioxidants.


Guarana

The seeds of this South American plant are a source of guaranine and are widely used for their stimulating effect. It is a central nervous system stimulant said to increase alertness and help fight fatigue.


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I

Immunological Function

The ability of the body to guard against infection and foreign antigens.


L

Lymphocyte

Cells of your immune system.


M

Melatonin

A hormone secreted from the pineal gland. Its concentration in the blood varies following a daily cycle. The maximum concentration occurs in the night, triggering sleepiness, with the minimal concentration around noon.


Micro-peptide

A very short peptide.


P

Peptide

Strings of attached amino acids too short to be considered a protein.


Protein

Long molecule composed of amino acids.


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S

Saw Palmetto

Small hardy clump-forming spiny palm of southern United States, helps support prostate function.


Selenium

A chemical element in the oxygen family (Group VIa) of the periodic table, closely allied in chemical and physical properties with the elements sulfur and tellurium.


Soluble

Susceptible of being dissolved in or as if in a fluid.


T

Thermogenic

The process of fat or calorie burning caused by an increase in the body metabolism through the generation of heat (thermogenesis).


Thiamin

Thiamin, also know as vitamin B1 is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17N4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.


Toxin

A colloidal proteinaceous poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism and is usually very unstable, notably toxic when introduced into the tissues, and typically capable of inducing antibody formation.


W

Whey Protein

The serum or watery part of milk that is separated from the coagulable part that is rich in lactose, minerals, and vitamins and contains lactalbumin and traces of fat.